Deadlines in April for eye care professionals

Here I am back with deadlines for April month!

Prevention of blindness week

The Prevention of Blindness Week campaign is planned by the Government of India and is held from the 1st to the 7th of April for increasing awareness towards blind people.

Raman–Charpak Fellowship

This programme implemented by the Indo-French Centre for Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR/ CEFIPRA) aims at improving the doctoral skills of Indian and French students by providing them with an opportunity to carry out part of their research work in a University / Research & Development Institute based in France or India respectively. This programme is now also open to French Master Students, who wish to spend some time in India in accordance with their curriculum. It aims at improving the Master’s skills of French students by providing them with an opportunity to carry out internship work in a University / Research Institute based in India.

Application deadline: April/May- June/July

Venue: Between India and France

Program dates: For PhD students-Mid-October onwards, For masters students-Mid-January (following year) onwards

Website: http://www.cefipra.org/Raman_Charpak.aspx

American Academy of Ophthalmology 2023:

The American Academy of Ophthalmology is the world’s largest association of eye physicians and surgeons. A global community of 32,000 medical doctors, we protect sight and empower lives by setting the standards for ophthalmic education and advocating for our patients and the public. We innovate to advance our profession and to ensure the delivery of the highest-quality eye care.

Application deadline: The online abstract submitter for papers/posters and videos opens Mar. 9 and closes Apr. 11. 2023

Venue: Moscone Center, San Francisco

Program dates: Friday–Monday, Nov. 3 – 6, 2023

Website: https://www.aao.org/annual-meeting

Brains, Minds and Machines

The synergistic combination of cognitive science, neurobiology, engineering, mathematics, and computer science holds the promise of significant progress. Elucidating how human intelligence works will in turn lead to more sophisticated AI algorithms. The goal of this course is to help produce a community of leaders that is equally knowledgeable in neuroscience, cognitive science, and computer science and will lead the scientific understanding of intelligence and the development of true biologically inspired AI.

Application deadline: 19 April 2023

Venue: Marine Biological Laboratory
7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543

Program dates: Aug 04, 2023 – Aug 25, 2023

Website: Brain, Minds and Machines

Hopkins Comprehensive eye care award:

Application window: 1st April – 1st june

Website: https://aaopt.org/awards-grants/resident-awards/#toggle-id-4

From: American Academy of Optometry

EPOS 2023: The Eye in Systemic Diseases

Abstract deadline: 19 April 2023

Program dates: 19-211 Oct 2023

Venue: Leuven, Belgium

Website: https://epos2023.com/ESOPRS

For the March Newsletter, follow this link

ESOPRA:

The aims of the society are to promote the practice and teaching of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery within Europe. Members are warmly welcome if they are keen to participate actively whatever their seniority or whatever branch of medicine they are involved in.

Venue: Naples

Abstract deadline: 15 April

Program date: 14-16 sep,2023

Website:https://www.esoprs.eu/

March Newsletter for eye care professionals

Here is a list of important events, programs, conferences and workshop deadlines for the month of March. Unquestionably, we won’t let you miss any deadline.

It’s World Optometry Day on 23 March

March 23rd is World Optometry Day, which celebrates a specialized healthcare profession involving examining the eyes to detect defects or abnormalities. The day was launched by the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, aiming to draw attention to doctors of optometry, who are at the frontline of eye and vision care!

European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons

ESCRS seeks to promote and support research in the field of intraocular lens implantation and refractive surgery and the dissemination of the useful results thereof. In addition, ESCRS has over 7,500 members from 130 countries worldwide.

Abstract submission opening date: January 2023

Abstract submission deadline: 15 Mar 2023

Video upload deadline:18 April 2023

Conference date: 8-12 September 2023

Venue: Vienna, Austria

Website: https://congress.escrs.org/

CVR-VISTA vision science summer school

The summer school features talks by our faculty, who are world leaders in vision science research. Besides, the curriculum reflects the wide range of research areas at CVR, and includes research on human visual perception, computer vision, machine learning, visual neuroscience, 3D film, immersive environments, disorders of vision, and more.

Application deadline-3 Mar 2023

Program dates: 10-14 July 2023

Venue: Centre for Vision Research, York University

Website:https://www.yorku.ca/cvr/summer-school/

Center for Visual Science Symposium

The travel fellowships (sponsored by the National Science Foundation) for students and postdocs cover the cost of travel for up to 10 recipients who will receive a maximum of $500 each. Additionally, you must submit actual receipts in order to be reimbursed. CVS will waive the registration fee for travel fellowship recipients.

Notification for funding: 21 Mar 2023

Website: https://www.cvs.rochester.edu/symposium/travel-fellowships.html

Venue: University of Rochester

International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction

The International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction (VINCI) is the premier international forum for researchers and industrial practitioners to discuss the state of the art in visual communication theories, designs, and applications. The 16th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction (VINCI ’23) will be held during 22-24 September 2023, in Guangzhou, China.

VINCI’23 includes tracks of Technical Papers, Art Papers, Young Talent Summer, and Art Gallery. All accepted papers will be included in the ACM Proceedings as formal publications and EI-indexed.

Selected papers will be invited to be extended for publication in a Special Section of The Visual Computer (Springer) and a Special Issue of the Visual Computing for Industry, Biomedicine and Art (Springer).

Venue: Guangzhou, China,

Dates: 22-24 September 2023

Deadline for abstracts: April 1st,2023

Website: https://vinci-symp.org/index.html

Royal Society Wolfson Visiting fellowship

The Royal Society Wolfson Visiting Fellowships provide an opportunity for talented international research leaders to undertake a flexible 12-month period of sabbatical leave in a UK university or research institution, to foster international collaborative links and enrich scientific research in the host organisation as well as the wider UK science base.

Application deadline: 22 Mar 2023

Result announcement: August 2023

Website: Royal Society Wolfson Visiting Fellowship

World glaucoma week: 12-18 Mar 2023

World Glaucoma Week

Workplace Eyewellness Month-March

March is Workplace Eye Wellness at Prevent Blindness. Proper eye protection minimizes the risk of significant eye injury. Also, Prevent Blindness recommends that the type of eye protection that should be used depends on the hazards in the workplace. For example, someone working in an area that has particles, flying objects, or dust, should wear safety glasses with side protection (side shields). If working near hazardous radiation (welding, lasers, or fiber optics) special-purpose safety glasses, goggles, face shields, or helmets designed for that task should be worn.

If you wanted to have a look at the February newsletter, click on the following link

Essilor Award for Outstanding international contributions to optometry and many more awards:

This award recognizes an individual(s) or organizations whose direct efforts and contributions have resulted in unquestionably significant and extraordinary advances in optometry and eye care internationally.

Since the Award is only to be made from nominations of truly extraordinary international contributions to optometry or eye care, it is not necessarily awarded every year.

Deadline : 1 April

Website: https://aaopt.org/awards-grants/optometrists-vision-scientists/#toggle-id-1

February Calendar for Eye care professionals

February is recognised as Age-Related Macular Degeneration Awareness month. It is characterised by central vision loss. Currently, there is no cure for this disease.

It is not easy for us keep up with the facts like above on every day basis. Hence to make it simple for you, I made a list of important courses, conferences, workshops and meetings for the month of February. Quickly, add them to your calender and work on attending such conferences. Additionally, if the abstract deadline is open, you can still submit your research and present.

Asia Pacific Academy of Ophthalmic Congress:

The Scientific Program Committee are fully committed to developing a world-class scientific program for our APAO 2023 Congress. In addition to the 16 ophthalmic subspecialty programs, there is a 120-minute Wet Lab course to provide a comprehensive introduction and hands-on experience on the various levels of surgeries or procedures in ophthalmology.

Website: https://2023.apaophth.org/

Venue: Malaysia

Dates: 23-26 February, 2023

Abstract submission deadline: 29 August 2022

The EyeOEP:

This program aims to provide a comprehensive optometry curriculum for delivering evidence-based eyecare. We designed to engage participants more actively and intensively. Further more, attractions of the conference this year include the Just-A-Minute (JAM) Optometry Pearls Competition, Live Demonstration Sessions, EyeOEP Quiz, Panel Discussions, and Debate.Ooptometry trainees, practicing optometrists and other eyecare professionals can attend the program.

Website: https://eyeoep.lvpei.org/

Dates:12-16 February 2023

Venue: LVPEI, Hyderabad, India

Click on this link to keep you updated with Vision research

WSPOS Independent medical education program-Comprehensive update on myopia management

Venue: Virtual

Registration: Free

Program date: 4 Feb, 2023

Website:https://www.wspos.org/world-wide-webinar/

Bachelor of Optometry at LVPEI in collaboration with GITAM

LVPEI has signed an MoU with the GITAM University at Hyderabad to start a four-year undergraduate Bachelor of Optometry (B.Optom) program. The initial three years will be a mix of classroom training and exposure visits at LVPEI. In the final year, the students will do a clinical internship at LVPEI. The curriculum includes the application of technologies such as artificial intelligence and deep learning to improve the patient experience

Website: https://www.lvpei.org/events/2022/bachelor-of-optometry/index.html

Venue: LVPEI, Hyderabad

Angiogenesis, Exudation and Degeneration 2023- Virtual edition

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute invites you to join us in February 2023 for our twentieth annual angiogenesis meeting. Also, the program will feature an exceptional group of basic scientists, clinicians, and healthcare experts, all focused on understanding and treating neovascular, exudative, and degenerative diseases of the eye. 

Website: https://umiamihealth.org/en/bascom-palmer-eye-institute/healthcare-professionals/continuing-medical-education/angiogenesis

Date: 10-11 Feb,2023

Venue: Virtual

TIFR Visiting Student Research Program 2023

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) conducts annual summer programmes in which talented students are introduced to research activities in the areas of Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, and Physics. The selected students are expected to work on a research project under the supervision of a TIFR researcher. 

Website: https://www.tifr.res.in/~vsrp/

Application deadline: 15 Feb 2023

Envision Summit:

Physicians created this premier event to support and empower leaders in an innovative format for continuing education and designed with your needs in mind.

Website: https://www.envisionsummit.org/

Date: Feb 17-20, 2023

Abstract submission deadline: 14 Dec 2022

Venue: Puerto Rico

EduEye, workshop on eye tracking in learning and education:

This workshop specifically targets researchers and practitioners who are interested in using eye tracking in education and learning. Further, this includes researchers from all areas of psychology, human-computer interaction, computer science, eye tracking methodology, and other related fields. 

Website: https://www.uni-ulm.de/in/edueye/

Venue: Tubingen, Germany

Dates: 30 May to 2 June, 2023

Abstract submission deadline: 22, Feb 2023

IPECP summit

Website: Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice Committee

Venue: United States

OCICON 2023 Optometry Mahotsav

Website: OCICON

Venue:

-Ahmedabad- 29 Jan, 2023

-Jaipur- 5 Feb, 2023

-Guwahati-12 Feb, 2023

-Bengaluru-19 Feb, 2023

-Kolkata- 26 Feb, 2023

ICVS summer school

We invite applications for the ICVS Summer School 2023 at Pembroke College, Oxford, UK, 31st July – 4th August 2023 (arrival 30th July; departure 4th August). The school will accept selected students and young researchers with basic knowledge of colour vision. It will focus on colour vision and its applications. The school will include lectures, discussions, and hands-on workshops, providing opportunities for formal and informal interaction with leading colour-vision researchers.

Venue: Pembroke College, Oxford

Application deadline: 1st March 2023

Website: http://www.icvs.info/index.php/summer-school

Program dates: 31st July – 4th August 2023

DBT RA program in biotechnology and Life sciences:

The Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India has recognized the importance of Post-Doctoral training in career development and initiated DBT-Research Associateship Program in Biotechnology way back in 1999. The objective of the DBT-RA Program is to train and nurture young researchers, scientists and generate a critical mass of trained manpower in modern areas of biology and biotechnology and build a robust postdoctoral base for the growth of the Biotechnology sectors in the country.

Website:https://ra.dbtindia.gov.in/

Application deadline: 28 Feb, 2023

European Conference on Visual Perception *(ECVP) 2023

The ECVP is an annual international conference that aims to provide a forum for presenting and discussing new developments in the disciplines of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Cognitive Sciences related to the scientific study of visual perception. Empirical, theoretical, and applied perspectives are all encouraged.

Application deadline: 1st March 2023

Program dates: Monday, 27th to Thursday, 31st of August, 2023.

Website: ECVP

Venue: Paphos, Cyprus

The Child Vision Society’s 2023 Biennial Meeting

A scientific meeting is organized every second year to provide an opportunity for exchanging new ideas and findings between basic scientists and clinicians concerned with vision in infants and children. Active participation in attending the meeting is encouraged by means of short oral presentations and posters

Abstract deadline: 10 Feb 2023

Program date: 12-14 July 2023

Early bird registration : before15 March 2023

Venue: UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, UK

Website: https://www.cvrsoc.org/

Snellen and his visual acuity chart

A day in an optometry clinic or vision camp doesn’t go without a visual acuity chart. Although there are various types of charts, the most common one is Snellen visual acuity chart. Herman Snellen (February 19, 1834 – January 18, 1908), a dutch ophthalmologist developed the chart in 1862 to measure visual acuity. Today, Jan 18 marks his death anniversary.

The chart has 11 lines of optotypes constructed as per strict geomteric rules. Each row of letters is assigned a ratio which indicates the visual acuity required to read it, and the ratio for the lowest line a person can read represents the individual’s visual acuity for that eye. A ratio less than 1 (for instance, 6/10) indicates worse-than-normal vision; a ratio greater than 1 (for instance, 6/5) indicates better than normal vision.

Want to learn how to make a visual acuity chart?

Conversely there are some controversies in using Snellen as a standard chart:

  1. The number of letters increases from top to bottom. This might cause visual crowding to some patients and reduce the visual acuity than the actual vision.
  2. The ratio difference between cosecutive lines is not similar and does not follow a particular order
  3. Spacing between the rows and letters is not similar or does not follow a linear or exponential order

Another interesting invention of Snellen was designing a light hollow prosthesis along with Muller brothers in 1892. The shell prosthesis was originally placed over atrophic eye and used after enucleation. This caused serious discomfort for the patient. To avoid this problem, Snellen designed a hollow prosthesis that could fill the space and fix in the socket well. This has been a real success in those times.

Herman Snellen (1834-1908) studied medicine in Utrecht and wrote a thesis under the guidance of Franciscus Donders (1818-1889). Yes, he was the Donders who introduced prismatic and cylindrical lenses for managing astigmatism and invented impression tonometer.

He invented numerous surgical procedures. These also include equipments related to entropion, ectropion, and trichiasis. Next time when you walk into an optical store and look at a big E on the top of a chart, remember the mastermind behind the chart is Snellen.

It’s Krause’s birthday!

Karl Friedrich Theodor Krause (15 December 1797 – 8 June 1868 ) is a german anatomist from Hanover. Accessory tear glands in the eyes are named after him, Krause’s glands. These are small mucous acinous glands. Further, they are situated between the conjunction of the upper and lower lid conjunctiva. And they are approx 40 in the upper lid and 6 or 8 in the lower lid. These glands produce tears that are secreted onto the conjunctiva.

Krause’s ligament:

He was the first physician to describe the transverse perineal ligament. Certainly, it is the thickened anterior border of the urogenital diaphragm.

His son was also an anatomist, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Krause (12 July 1833 – 4 February 1910). In 1892, people at Anatomical Institute Laboratory appointed him as the head of the lab. Below mentioned are the three eponyms under his name.

Krause’s corpuscles:

These are sensory receptors for the sensation of cold on the limbus, conjunctiva, skin and tongue. Sometimes referred to as “Krause’s end bulbs”

Krause ‘s membranes:

These are defined as isotropic bands in striated muscle fibre that consist of disks of sarcoplasm and connect the individual fibrils. Also known as Z-Disc or Dobie’s line.

Krause respiratory bundle:

A slender compact fibre bundle that is also known as the “solitary tract”. It is referred to as “Gierke respiratory bundle”, coined in honour of anatomist Hans Paul Bernhard Gierke.

Fun fact: Bacteriologist Robert Koch was Wilhelm Krause’s student at Gottingen

Read about “Alexander- The doctor who was shot by his patient

Eco-friendly eyewear

What would the world look like if we understood that we are a part of nature? How would things change?

While focussing on sustainability and conscious living, many eyewear brands have started using eco-friendly eyewear, including an eco-friendly lens and frame. Here is an overview of a few materials that frame designers use in their quest to produce more sustainable eyewear.

Plant-based Materials

Castor beans:

Few companies make frames out of castor beans. They harvest and press the castor beans for actor oil. Later, polymerise the products to make plant based pellets. The pellets are melted down and injected into moulds to make frames and is a highly resilient and renewable source. It reduces the carbon footprint.

eyewear

Examples: Pala, Proof Eye Wear

Cellulose acetate:

The most common material used to make eco-friendly sunglasses and eyeglasses is cellulose acetate. Companies produce cellulose acetate from natural substances like cotton, wood pulp bamboo, Italian acetate, and ethically sourced buffalo horn. It is lightweight and can be made in any colour or shape. These are hypoallergenic, good for the environment and lightweight.

Example: Cocoleni, Eco eyewear, Ozeano,MONC

Do you want to know how to select a frame? Read this article for more info Quick steps to choose a suitable spectacle frame for your pretty face

Cork :

Cork is the bark of the cork oak tree, and for thousands of years, the cultivation of cork oak trees has proven to be one of our planet’s most sustainable and environmentally responsible types of farming.The harvesting process actually enhances the health and lifecycle of the forests which support high levels of biodiversity and foster a great diversity of plants and endangered species. Its growth reduces up to two times the amount of CO2 compared to other trees. The cork is stripped and treated and then hand wrapped around the temples which provides the frames with flexibility, a soft texture and incredible lightweight comfort. Cork is reusable, fire and water-resistant, insulating and biodegradable.

Examples: Sticks & Sparrow

Bamboo:

Bamboo is the fastest-growing grass on earth. After harvesting, does not require replanting, its extensive root system continually sends up new shoots, naturally replenishing itself & making it one of the most renewable resources on earth. In addition to its natural beauty, bamboo is intrinsically light in weight, is stronger than steel and can also tolerate extreme heat conditions. It leaves a much smaller ecological footprint than comparable materials. It boasts impressive strength and durability. Not only does bamboo grow everywhere, in all sizes, but it also grows fast. Really fast. Bamboo holds the current Guinness book for World Record for the fastest growing plant, with some varieties growing up to 91 cm (35 inches) a day. It’s possible to hear the creaks and groans during the sprouting season if you have time to sit and listen to the grass grow.

All of which makes it ideally suited to eyewear frame construction. It is lighter by volume than most softwood lumber. Don’t mistake its lightness for weakness; bamboo has a tensile strength greater than steel and can withstand compression better than concrete. These qualities make it an ideal construction material as well.

Bamboo example: Wear panda

Recyclable materials:

rPET-Frames made of recycled water bottles (rPET):

In the recycling facility, they sort, wash the bottles and chop them into flakes. Then, they are clean flakes are blended, melted, and turned into granules ready to be cut into chips. These chips enter our state-of-the-art facilities and are transformed into raw materials known as rPET. Our team creates 3D drawings to be used in the moulding process. Then, the frames go through a single moulding machine that turns them into beautiful frames! 5 water bottles to create one pair of fashionable eyewear. This reduces plastic waste, creates jobs and encourages a circular economy

Sunski, Genusee, Mita, Sea2See, Sea clean by GlassesUSA, Econyl (also uses old carpets destined for landfills)

Dick Moby, SKRP (Uses wooden recycled skateboard sunglasses), Dresden (limited-edition glasses made from milk bottle caps, recycled wood chips, and beer keg caps)

Recycled fishing gear and nets:

Abandoned fishing gear and nets are the most lethal forms of plastic in our ocean. Few companies partner with several mechanical recycling facilities to process various forms of end-of-life fishing gear and produced a pair of sunglasses. And as we suspected, fishing nets durable enough to last 500 years in the ocean make for super-strong sunglasses frames. These produce sustainable, recycled eyewear. These nets would last decades in the oceans, hence the sunglasses frames last you a lifetime.

The manufacturers separate the fishing gear by type of polymer, and recycle it through a mechanical process of shredding, washing and agglomeration. Further, these companies tie up with NGOs that collect ocean waste and process it into their raw material.

The raw material goes to a processing centre. Manufacturers sort, clean, shred, dry, and prep it. The prepped material gets a bit of pigment and stabilizer and is extruded into plastic granules to mould.

Example: Waterhaul, Econyl

Ceramic nose pads

Some companies make ceramic nose pads from heat-hardened clay and earthen material.

Example:- Zeal

Recyclable textile scraps:

These companies make eyeframes from textile waste products. They gather textiles from different sources. Then, the textile yarn is reprocessed to produce frames.

Example: Econyl

Do you know any more companies that use offbeat raw materials to make glass frames? Write to us in the comment section.

How do you know if a scientific article is reliable?

Every topic that you search for has thousands of research articles. Although the internet had made it easy to search for every article we need, it also made it difficult by giving thousands of options for a single topic. The scientific reliability of the article becomes a question mark. We can’t review a thousand articles for one topic, it is practically impossible. Somehow we need to reduce it to 20-25 articles. These are some rules I realised in the long run from my reading experience to select the articles.

Article
  • Identifying the name of the journal:
    • First and the most important thing is identifying the name of the journal. Do not ever fall into the trap of predatory journals. Predatory journals are the journals which accept the publication with article processing fees and author charges and do not consider evaluating the content by peer-reviewing. Nowadays these journals also send requests personally on LinkedIn and g-mail for manuscript submissions. Hence a big NO to all articles of the predatory journals.
  • Is it a peer-reviewed journal?
    • Peer reviewing is a very important part of publishing. This shows how well you can defend the research you have done and how well the scientific community apart from your research group accepts your ideas. Sometimes, having gone through peer reviewing adds unique perspectives to the manuscript and makes it more robust. Hence check the journal’s website, if it mentioned peer review.
  • Impact factor:
    • Clarivate calculates the impact factor every year. It reflects the yearly mean number of citations that the journal receives for the last two years’ publications. Observing the trend of impact factors across years of a journal shows whether the quality of publications accepted by the particular journal is reducing or improving.
  • Pub-med indexed:
    • If you are in a medical or paramedical field one easy way is to check if the journal is pub-med indexed. There are chances that if a publishing company is starting a new journal it might not have impact factors for the first few years since it takes some time to get noticed by the people. Pub-med indexed journals are more trustworthy than the non-indexed or no impact factor journals. But this principle applies only to the medical and paramedical subjects.
  • Evidence-based pyramid:
    • Evidence based pyramid in medicine has the review articles and meta-analyses at the top with the highest valued content. As you go below the pyramid the scientific level of evidence becomes less relevant and unfiltered. Hence it is wise to start any literature review with the review articles.
  • Check the author’s name:
    • Research the author’s experience in the field and see if they have multiple publications in a similar field. Experienced research authors or publications in collaboration with experienced research authors yield better scientific content.
  • Publisher name:
    • Since there are some well-established publishers in the past few decades already, the articles from those publishers can be easily trusted without any doubt.
  • Technicalities of the paper:
    • There are some technical details or factors that help you to understand the reliability of the publication. For example, Does the sample chosen for the study represent the population or is there any sampling bias? Is the methodology appropriate for the particular disease? Does the conclusion drawn from their results appropriate? Or the authors are biased toward any one side of the story? Do they have any financial interests? These thoughts will make you think about the credibility of the article.
  • Number of citations:
    • Various people working in the same field often cite the articles of high significance . If the article has multiple citations, that represents the science in the article was useful to open up many answers and perspectives in the field. Any article that has been published recently will not have citations, since it has been in the journal for a very short period. Hence also correlate the year of publications along with the number of citations.
  • Year of the publication:
    • Sometimes in the medical field, when you read about the treatment or diagnosis of a disease in a paper that was published 20 years ago and compare it with the treatment of current times, there would be a lot of difference. Hence it is always important that you keep the year of publication in mind to realise the importance of that particular evidence.

Once you select the articles for review, you will need to know how to read a research article?

http://optometryzone.com/2022/03/24/how-to-read-a-research-article/

All the above tips are not hard and fast rules. Take all these tips with a pinch of salt. They can be different in rare case scenarios. These only represent the maximum percentage of good publication characteristics. There is no single indicator that says that we can trust one journal or publisher or an author. I hope to keep in mind all the above tips you might get to some sort of conclusion, also I completely worked on medical and paramedical scientific research. Hence these tips are from a point of personal perspective.

Do you have more specific tips on how to narrow it down further? Let me know in the comments section.

Alexander- The doctor who was shot by his patient

Professor Gustav Alexander was an Austrian Otolauringologist. Born in  Vienna in 1873. Prof. Alexander received his medical degree in 1898. He was mainly trained in anatomy, neurology, histopathology and other areas in addition to ontology. Today is his death anniversary.

He has been famous for his description of Alexander’s law.  His edict that gaze in the direction of the fast component increased the intensity of the nystagmus, while gaze in the opposite direction had the reverse effect, added diagnostic significance to the laws of nystagmus.

He personally funded and established a histopathology lab for his students. In addition to being a wonderful scientist, he was also a talented pianist. The expression of his appreciation for the arts extended to his collection of paintings, bronzes, silver and early tiles.

Later, he published Ear diseases of childhood and the handbook of Oto-neurology. On April 12th, 1932, Professor Gustav Alexander was shot dead by his own patient. He had performed saddle-nose surgery on a patient, Johann Sokoup, who was not happy with the results, hence, the same person has tried shooting 22 years before that and missed the aim, unfortunately. His death is considered an irreparable loss to the otology. He published an average of 12 articles every year.

References:

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/014556139607500307

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-laryngology-and-otology/article/professor-gustav-alexander-vienna/632C779BD7824B1201CABD818452427F

Hassall and Hassall-Henle bodies

It is the death anniversary of Arthur Hassall Henle. (13th Dec 1817- 9th April,1894) He is a British physician, chemist and microscopist who is primarily known for his work in public health and food safety.

He published a two-volume study, The Microscopic Anatomy of the Human Body in Health and Disease, the first English textbook on the subject.

Are you curious to read about another scientist? Click on this link for more information

He became famous with his book, A microscopical examination of the water supplied to the inhabitants of London, which became an influential work in promoting the cause of water reform.

Two medical terms are named after Hassall: 

Hassall corpuscles- The spherical bodies in the medulla of thymus glands

Hassall-Henle bodies-small abnormal transparent growths on the posterior surface of Descemet’s membrane

The Thames caused the spread of many diseases, including cholera. In the early 1850s, he also studied food adulteration. His reports led to the first Food Adulteration Act of 1860. He continued his interest in climate and disease and published extensively on climatic treatments for TB.

The biography of Hassall is written by Dr Ernest Gray.

What do we know of Hassall? It is this question which Dr Ernest Gray has set out to answer, and in this pleasantly written and well researched biography he shines a torch-light into the Victorian gloom (otherwise barely lit ‘by candlelight’) and reveals Arthur Hill Hassall as not merely a physician to be remembered for his eponymous thymic corpuscles but also a remarkable figure who excelled in many varied spheres

hassall

He died in 1894 at the age of 77.

References:

How to read a research article?

Before starting to read a research article, decide what is the purpose for your read. Is it because you are interested in understanding a particular subject in-depth? or because you wanted to pursue the project in that field?

If you want an answer to a particular question, just select any recent review article and understand the conclusions well. If you want for literature search, so that you can pursue your future projects in that field, then follow the below steps.

Deciding a journal:

Make a list of journals in your subject with impact factors and whether they are PubMed indexed. Due to the rampant increase in the numbers of predatory journals, we need to be very cautious about the source. Do not read or trust any information or research article from predatory journals.

Start with review articles: 

For a person who is a newbie to research, I would suggest reading review articles, because they are the compilation summaries of multiple articles. Also, they contain very less mathematical numbers. Hence it will be easy for the brain to comprehend it as a story. Even if you are not a newbie, sometimes if you feel there’s any difficult concept, going back and searching for a review article is always a good option.

Highlighting/Making notes: 

Start highlighting with a marker (either on-screen or paper). Because, once you start reading a complex article, authors use multiple analogies, explanations to make complex concepts into simple concepts. But the important idea of the project lies mainly in one sentence that explains the purpose and another sentence that explains the methodology. If you do not underline/highlight there are high chances that you forget the main purpose before engrossing completely into the methodology. Additionally,  If you are patient enough, you can even make notes of the articles.

Non-understandable bits prevent us from following the main ideas: 

A variety of specialists are needed to pursue a single subject of research. For example, if you are studying about one part of the eye cornea, you might require engineers to build machines to image cornea, you might require doctors to assess the images, you might require data analysts to understand how to convert these images into valuable information. Once all these people collaborate and publish an article, it is not so easy for a doctor or an engineer to completely understand all three components of the research.

read research article

Hence it is okay to ignore non-understandable bits of the paper and concentrate on information that is of your interest. Any published article is a result of years of work in that particular field by a group of scientists. It is natural, of it takes multiple reads to understand in detail. Hence, take it easy on yourself and give time for multiple reads.

Contact the authors:

Once you really think there is something in the paper that you especially need to understand to do further research, you can always ask the author. You will be doing them a favour by letting them know that it’s complex for a person like you. They also feel happy to know someone is really interested in learning their area of interest. 

The authors tend to assume significant background knowledge from readers. It is not wrong on their part since, if a person is really interested in that topic, they will definitely learn all the basics and then come to research articles.  Also, since every journal has a word limit, authors have to explain their research concisely. Hence understanding an article depends on how much interest the reader has to learn that particle subject.

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Order of a research article:

The simplest way to understand an article is to read in the order it is presented by the journal. Most of the journals follow similar templates. Skimming the abstract should get you clear whether the article is of any use to your area of interest. Once you feel it is related, you start reading the introduction, methodology, results, discussion and conclusion. Sometimes if you don’t understand even the purpose of the article, it is always wise to start with a discussion. Authors use simple words in discussion with fewer numerical values and also extrapolate the specific results of the project into the practical applications and implications. Also, looking at the graphs and images gives a simple idea of the main results.

All the information above is from personal experience and from the below references. Open to any other simples ways of reading a research article. Comment your suggestions below.

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